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Stem cells are defined by two key properties: pluripotency and self-renewal. Pluripotency refers to the ability of cells to differentiate into a variety of specialized cell types such as nerve cells, cardiac muscle cells, or blood cells. Self-renewal is the capability of undifferentiated cells to divide repeatedly while retaining their undifferentiated condition.

There are three types of pluripotent stem cells, namely, embryonic stem cells (ES), epiblast stem cells (EpiSC), and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS). Induced pluripotent cells are the result of reprogramming of differentiated adult cells into a pluripotent state. ES cells are derived from early-stage embryos (prior to embryo attachment to the uterus), whereas epiblast stem cells are isolated from post-implantation mouse embryos.

Mouse epiblast stem cells are very similar to human embryonic stem ...

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