Parthenogenesis is a type of biological asexual reproduction in the absence of fertilization, with the development of a new individual or embryo from an unfertilized gamete. Mammals lack this form of replication. Recent advances in stem cell research have led to the creation of human stem cells through parthenogenesis.

Occurrence in Nature

Parthenogenesis is a naturally occurring phenomenon and can usually be observed in simple plants and almost every major invertebrate group (including aphids, rotifers, fleas, nematodes, bees, scorpions, and wasps) and a few vertebrates (amphibians, fish, and rarely birds) except protochordates. Fish, amphibians, and reptiles exhibit various types of gynogenesis and hybridogenesis (an incomplete form of parthenogenesis). This type of reproduction has also been artificially induced in a few species of fish and amphibians. It frequently ...

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