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The National Academy of Sciences (the Academy) is a nonprofit organization of pro bono members who advance the cause of American science by serving as advisers on science policy. The Academy is one of the National Academies of the United States, along with the National Research Council, the Institute of Medicine, and the National Academy of Engineering, and is chartered by Congress. Unlike the National Institutes of Health (NIH) or the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Academy neither conducts nor funds research. Instead, it provides advice and prepares subject-specific reports on aspects of American life and policy where science may shine a light, from underage drinking to the collapse of honeybee colonies.

Created in 1863, the National Academy of Sciences is the first of the American ...

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