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In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a minor surgical medical procedure in which the female egg is retrieved by a laparoscopic procedure and is then fertilized by the male sperm outside the body in a controlled environment. IVF is indicated when other fertility techniques have failed or there is known physiological blockage of the fallopian tubes.

It can be combined with other assistive reproductive advances to treat male infertility and is also indicated for women with unexplained infertility. It is typically not the first choice for treatment unless the woman is known to have a blockage of the fallopian tubes, but it is commonly used when other less invasive reproductive assistive technology (RAT) techniques have failed. The first successful IVF procedure was performed in 1978 after it ...

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