Human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are the cells obtained from the blastocyst-stage inner cell mass of human embryos that are pluripotent in nature with self-renewing abilities. The self-renewal capacity of human ESCs (hESCs) is similar to that of mouse ESCs (mESCs); however, the in vivo tests such as germline contribution and chimera are not possible in case of humans. The human ESCs could give rise to all the three embryonic germ layer–constituting cell types. In fact, the hESCs may possess greater differentiation potential as compared to the mESC under in vitro conditions since besides the embryo proper tissues, trophoectoderm has been found.

These cells can differentiate to form aggregating structures known as embryoid bodies (EBs) when grown in suspension culture. Teratoma formation can take place upon ...

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