Cardiovascular disease (also called heart disease) is a group of diseases that encompasses the diseases of heart (the pumping organ), the blood vessels (the pipes that carry our blood, including arteries, capillaries, and veins), or both. Cardiovascular disease denotes any lesion that affects the cardiovascular system, principally heart disease, vascular diseases of the brain and kidney, and peripheral arterial disease.

The causes of cardiovascular diseases are varied, but atherosclerosis and hypertension are the most common in the current era. In addition, with aging come a number of senile physiological and morphological changes that modify cardiovascular function and lead to later greater risk of cardiovascular disease, even in healthy asymptomatic individuals. But even the young are not spared from the affects of cardiovascular diseases, and we see ...

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