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Cosmetic surgery is a subspecialty of medicine that uniquely focuses on the enhancement and maintenance of physical appearance using surgery and other medical procedures. It is a multibillion-dollar industry in several countries, with procedures available to enhance nearly any part of the body. It is no surprise that the promising advancements in stem cell technology have been incorporated into the practice of aesthetic medicine. Cosmetic surgery has primarily focused on utilizing adipose-derived stem (or stromal) cells (ADSC). ADSCs are being used in soft tissue augmentation and contouring, such as in the breasts and buttocks, face, and skin. Unfortunately, many of the “stem cell” cosmetic procedures on the market may be ahead of the science and U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation. Large-scale randomized trials ...

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