Cartilage, Tendons, and Ligaments: Major Pathologies

The human skeletal system consists of bones, cartilage, and joints along with supplementary structures, including tendons and ligaments. Damage to the cartilage is associated with severe inflammation, skeletal stiffness, and range limitation. Similarly, since ligaments and tendons serve to connect the components of the skeletal system, damage to these structures is also associated with significant pain, swelling, restricted movement, and permanent disability. Major disease states associated with cartilage, tendons, and ligaments are treated through conventional modalities. However, current experimental research is investigating the significance of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in the use of cartilage, tendon, and ligament regeneration and repair. Mesenchymal stem cells are multipotent cells that can differentiate into different types of cell varieties, including chondrocytes. They can be obtained from umbilical cord ...

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