Bioreactors are controlled, closed systems used for the creation of cultures. They have many uses, ranging from the production of beer to more refined purposes such as creating large batches of stem cells of uniformly high quality. Microfluidic devices are another recent development similar to microbioreactors. Microfluidic devices and microbioreactors allow tight control and management of throughputs for better understanding of niches and more efficient drug screening. They also reveal paracrine/autocrine factors for enhanced control of differentiation. Both allow manipulation of the microenvironment through adjustment of cytokine gradients and flow rate.

Bioreactors have long been used in large-scale animal cell production, and converting them to stem cell generation is a matter of process engineering. Bioreactor engineering enables better modification and management of niches for maximum expansion, ...

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