Prayer is a verbal and nonverbal way for humans to communicate with the transcendent. It is also a religious and spiritual practice, which is embedded in religious rites, exercised collectively or individually. Following the professed system of beliefs, a person could pray to gods, spirits, ancestors, or saints. According to Pitirim Sorokin, atheists could practice prayer as well even though they address it to their subjective self, destiny, or conscience. William James and Friedrich Heiler considered prayer central and essential to all religions and individual religious lives for its feature of actualizing the reality of the sacred through addressing the prayers to the divine and the supernatural. The human need for conversation with the transcendent has a variety of motives. They could be driven by, ...

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