Ideologies are sets of ideas that social actors formulate based on their position in social hierarchies, bring into circulation through public discourses and that, to various degrees, shapes actors’ social practices. Religion is related to ideologies in two ways: (1) Religious groups are producers of ideologies that seek to promote their vision of the world, faith, or interests. (2) But religious traditions can also promulgate, or be shaped by, broader social and political ideologies such as fascism, nationalism, or ideologies of capitalist markets.

The most coherent and explicit sociological theory of ideology and religion was formulated by the economist and political philosopher Karl Marx, who sought to conceptualize the role of ideology, in particular, economic theories but also religion, in generating and maintaining class relationships ...

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