Cultural, Religious, and Spiritual Capital

The modern discussion of varieties of capital began with Pierre Bourdieu. For this French sociologist, society is not a unified and integrated system; rather, it is a multidimensional space in which agents possess and defend various forms of capital within specific subsocial space, which he calls fields. Part of his sociology is to study the positions of key agents in these fields and understand what economic, cultural, symbolic, and social position they hold and the conflicts they have with other agents.

Such fields can be education, religion, political parties, or the arts. In all these, one can find various types of agents, with different forms of capitals and logics of action, who are involved in struggles of various types. In the field of religion, for example, ...

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