In postmodernity, with the ubiquity of media and mediated relationships, Jean Baudrillard (1929–2007) proposed that reality, society, and culture had been subjugated by the processes of simulation and become hyper-real. These are self-referential semiotic systems in which meaning, objects, language, and signs have no solid grounding, origin, referent, or foundation. Implications of the work of Baudrillard offer the sociology of religion at least four possibilities: two closures and two openings. There is the pronouncement of the end of the social and sociology and the end of religion: hence, the end of the sociology of religion. In turn, this leads to the possible opening and irruption of symbolic phenomena and the opportunity for hyper-real religion(s).

Baudrillard claims that a new form of iconoclasm functions, one that does ...

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