Abū Rayhān Muhammad ibn Ahmad Al-Bīrūnī (973–1050) was a polymath and amongst the most influential scientists during the golden age of Islamic enlightenment, between the 9th and 12th centuries. Known in the West as al-Biruni, Beruni, or in Latin, Alberonius, he was originally from the town of Kath (Khwarazm) in modern-day Uzbekistan. He was a physician, astronomer, mathematician, physicist, chemist, geographer, and historian. He wrote more than 100 books in numerous fields enjoying admiration in the East and the West.

Al-Biruni’s observations and notations from his travels to India form the most accurate historical account of medieval India, making him one of the earlier scholars in the area of comparative religions. George Sarton, the founder of the history of science discipline, defined al-Biruni as one of ...

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