Zionism is a Jewish nationalist movement that forms the conceptual essence of the State of Israel and the basis of its modern institutional organization. Some view Zionism as a reaction to the anti-Semitism in Central and Eastern Europe in the late 19th century that culminated in the Holocaust—the annihilation of European Jewry during the World War II (1939–1945). However, changes in modern migratory patterns, the developing recognition among the Great Powers of the concept of national self-determination, dramatic international geopolitical developments, intensive diplomatic activity, and extensive development of Zionist settlement activity were all major factors in the transformation of Zionism from a political idea, in its various expressions and internal organizational frameworks, into an overarching diplomatic endeavor that was fulfilled in the establishment of the ...

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