The concept of youth typically refers to the life stage between childhood and adulthood. In developmental psychology, these stages are distinguished based on physiological changes that affect decision-making abilities. But these biological categories are also value-laden. In fact, the life course in itself assumes a general trajectory toward independence, with mental and emotional stability as markers of adulthood. Youth and childhood, by contrast, are characterized by different vulnerabilities.

But there are no standards to ascertain exactly how and when these transitions take place. This explains why states have to determine their own transition markers such as the age of consent, age of criminal responsibility, voting age, and even driving age. Age brackets vary as well. While the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization defines youth ...

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