The word “vocation” derives from Latin vocātiō, signifying calling, which implies both mundane and transcendent meanings and motives of human service and self-realization in various spheres of life. The meaning of vocation has undergone considerable transformation from the Reformation era until the present day, in which the traditional sense of the word is coupled with the concepts of occupation, profession, career, and lifestyles. According to William Placher, four historical stages produced the dynamics in religious-secular connotations of vocation. First, “religious calling” (klḗsis in Greek) signified the religious choice of becoming a Christian in the alien socioreligious environment of the Roman Empire and the consequences of adopting a Christian identity for the family and public life. Second, during the Middle Ages, the process of Christian institutionalization ...

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