As a general philosophical question, universalism is the doctrine of that entity whose existence cannot be doubted; whatever the universal may be, it ‘is’ in and of itself. The universal acknowledges no limit (temporal, geographical, or otherwise) that may restrict it through specific determinations. It is a priori and remains constant; the force of its necessity is both logical (as in the link between a premise and its conclusion or between a cause and its effects) as much as it is normative (as in commands that must be followed under any and all circumstances). In the social sciences, a universalistic orientation is perhaps most visible in the core belief of the fundamental unity of the human species.

The Universalistic Perspective

A universalistic approach contends that all individuals ...

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