Modern Theosophy refers to a set of ideas and organizations originating with the activities of Russian-born occultist Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (1831–1891). Embodied in the Theosophical Society, which was established in New York City in 1875 by Blavatsky, the American military officer and lawyer Henry Steel Olcott (1832–1907), and the Irish-American barrister William Quan Judge (1851–1896), Theosophy attracted tens of thousands of students in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, leaving a number of splinter organizations in its wake. The leading branch of Theosophy moved its headquarters to Adyar in Chennai, India, in 1886; an independent American branch has been associated with the activities of Katherine Tingley (1847–1929), including the theosophical commune Lomaland (1900–1942) in Southern California and is now known as the Theosophical Society ...

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