Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling

Exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) is a data analytic framework developed in 2009 by Tihomir Asparouhov and Bengt Muthén and implemented in the Mplus statistical software. ESEM extends the structural equation modeling (SEM) framework to incorporate latent factors defined according to exploratory factor analysis (EFA) specifications. The ESEM framework can thus incorporate different sets of EFA factors (a set corresponding to a series of indicators related to a series of factors with all cross-loadings freely estimated within this set, but not between sets), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) factors (where factor indicators are used to define their a priori factors without the incorporation of all possible cross-loadings), and observed variables measured using any combination of continuous and categorical measurement scales. These factors and observed variables can ...

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