A dependent variable, also called an outcome variable, is the result of the action of one or more independent variables. It can also be defined as any outcome variable associated with some measure, such as a survey. In quantitative research design, the world is often imagined as a set of variables affecting another set of variables. The simplest model for this is an independent variable causing a dependent variable. The dependent variable is so named because in this simple model, it depends on another variable. Imagine an arrow going to the dependent variable from the independent variable. There are no arrows going to the independent variable in this simple model (though, of course, something causes it, it is just not of interest in this ...

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