Declaration of Helsinki

The Declaration of Helsinki is a formal statement of ethical principles published by the World Medical Association (WMA) to guide the protection of human participants in medical research. The Helsinki Declaration is not a legally binding document but has served as a foundation for national and regional laws governing medical research across the world. Although not without its controversies, the declaration has served as a standard in medical research ethics since its establishment in 1964. This entry provides a brief review of the history of the Helsinki Declaration and then offers summaries of each section of the seventh revision of the declaration.

History and Current Status

Before World War II, no formal international statement of ethical principles to guide research with human participants existed, leaving researchers to ...

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