Contingency Table Analysis

A contingency table is a table of counts, produced by cross-classifying items (e.g., persons, products, institutions) according to two or more categorical variables (attributes). Contingency tables group item-specific data in cells without losing information of the cross-classified variables, thus providing a summary presentation and a first descriptive analysis, aiming at examining the underlying associations among the classification variables. Contingency tables commonly occur in applications of psychological, educational, and social sciences. The information of a contingency table is further summarized by measures of association and analyzed by appropriate models.

The decision for the appropriate type of measures and models for a specific contingency table analysis relies on the nature of the study, the hypothesis under investigation, and the measurement scale of the classification variables (nominal or ordinal). ...

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