Quantitative research is typically designed to demonstrate a relationship between an independent variable that a researcher has manipulated (e.g., receiving a treatment or not receiving a treatment) and dependent variable. If, though, the true relationship is between some other variable and the dependent variable, then confounding has occurred. Confounding can only occur when two variables systematically covary. Researchers are often interested in examining whether there is a relationship between two or more variables. Understanding the relationship between or among variables, including whether those relationships are causal, can be complicated when an independent or predictor variable covaries with a variable other than the dependent variable. When a variable systematically varies with the independent variable, the confounding variable provides an explanation other than the independent variable ...

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