Bias is systematic error that occurs in the research enterprise. All research includes some forms of bias, and investigators are responsible for recognizing such potential when sharing their findings. Naming how different types of bias may or may not affect the quality of research conclusions is a central feature of the validation process. Consider, for example, what happens when comparing the behaviors of people who are classified into different groups and studied over time. If the groups are unequal at the beginning of a study, any subsequent variance between the groups cannot be explained using only the new research evidence. Uncontrolled and unnamed biases may be the cause of any differences between groups or changes that might occur over time. To minimize distortion in any ...

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