Repeated measures studies are common in psychological research. For example, evaluation research in psychology frequently uses changes in self-report measures of constructs (e.g., well-being, health-related quality of life) to determine the impact of interventions or programs on various outcomes. Similarly, longitudinal research examining changes over time in the natural course of adapting to health states (e.g., diagnosis of a health condition) also uses repeated self-report measures. Such research designs involve comparing the participants’ scores on an initial questionnaire with their scores on the same measure at a later time. Sometimes, however, the initial pre-test data are not trustworthy and a second set of pre-test scores is collected after the fact. Respondents are asked to reflect on the past and respond how they think they would ...

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