Software, Free

Statistical software is an enabling component of conducting educational research. In particular, it makes statistical routines such as linear regression, data visualization, data manipulation, or other data-related tasks easier for users to perform. There are a variety of statistical software that users can choose from. These include general purpose software such as SPSS (IBM Corp., 2019), Stata (StataCorp, 2019), SAS (SAS Institute, 2017), R (R Core Team, 2021), Python (Rossum, 1995; Van Rossum & Drake, 2009), and Julia (Bezanson, Edelman, Karpinski, & Shah, 2017). Furthermore, thematic coding of qualitative studies are also commonly used to aid in the coding element using software such as NVivo (QSR International, 2020). This entry focuses on quantitative software as these are more numerous, but the principles can be applied ...

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