Quantitative research studies produce results that can be used to describe or note numerical changes in measurable characteristics of a population of interest; generalize to other, similar situations; provide explanations of predictions; and explain causal relationships. The fundamental philosophy underlying quantitative research is known as positivism, which is based on the scientific method of research. Measurement is necessary if the scientific method is to be used. The scientific method involves an empirical or theoretical basis for the investigation of populations and samples. Hypotheses must be formulated, and observable and measurable data must be gathered. Appropriate mathematical procedures must be used for the statistical analyses required for hypothesis testing.

Quantitative methods depend on the design of the study (experimental, quasi-experimental, nonexperimental). Study design takes into account all ...

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