Measurement Invariance

Measurement invariance (also measurement equivalence) is given when test items measure the same latent construct for different groups of individuals or at different points in time. Latent constructs, such as attitudes or competencies, are not directly observable and are thus assessed through indicators like test items of a questionnaire. Assessing measurement invariance means to test whether indicators are interpreted in a similar manner by different individuals or by the same individuals at different occasions. If individuals show systematic differences in how they interpret the indicators (i.e., if the construct is measurement noninvariant), the test scores of the different groups do not reflect the same underlying construct. Consequently, the instrument is inappropriate for research purposes, as latent mean scores cannot be compared between the groups. Intelligence ...

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