Masking (or blinding) is a design technique used to minimize bias in clinical trials with more than one trial arm. It refers to the process in which one or more parties involved in the trial, such as participants or investigators, are withheld the knowledge about the treatment type assignment. Masking is used to conceal the treatment identity during its administration. It protects against the disclosure (e.g., by appearance, smell, taste, route of administration) of whether a trial participant is receiving an experimental treatment, an active comparator, or a placebo. The aim of masking is to ensure that all participants are treated in the same manner throughout the trial and personal expectations or preferences related to the treatment type do not influence the trial results. ...

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