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Gender bias in hiring practices is directly evidenced through experimental studies simulating hiring practices and through field studies of actual hiring. Indirectly, gender bias can be observed through occupational sex segregation (women and men being found disproportionately in different occupations) and differential starting salaries. In addition, the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission continues to investigate yearly thousands of cases of disparate treatment (i.e., purposeful discrimination) and disparate impact (i.e., unintentional discrimination) based on gender. Although discrimination based on sex (gender) is illegal in the United States, based on Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, there is ample evidence that gender bias in hiring is still occurring. Gender bias can target both men and women; however, historically in the United States and the ...

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