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Contraception refers to a variety of methods used to prevent or to postpone pregnancy. Methods can be hormonal (e.g., contraceptive pill, vaginal ring, emergency contraceptive pill [ECP]), barrier (e.g., condom, diaphragm), surgical (e.g., tubal ligation, vasectomy), or behavioral (e.g., fertility awareness, withdrawal, abstinence). These methods vary in effectiveness, availability and accessibility, and duration (long acting vs. short acting) and in whether they are reversible or not. According to the World Health Organization, the most common forms of contraception used by married or in-union women of reproductive age are female sterilization and the intrauterine device. The ability to prevent or postpone pregnancy is associated with numerous health benefits, including reductions in maternal morbidity and mortality, and infant and child mortality, and complications resulting from unsafe abortions, ...

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