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The concept of a bystander is frequently linked to issues of gender, in the context of bystanders who take responsible action against harassment and discrimination. Bystanders are people who observe or learn about good—or bad—behavior by others, while not knowingly engaged in planning or executing the behavior. They have no formal role in the situation and may or may not take action. If they take helpful action, they may be called “active” or “positive” bystanders, or “up-standers.” This entry considers the cultural, religious, and gender perspectives through which one can understand bystander behavior, the value of bystander training, and directions for future research.

Cultural, Religious, and Gender Lenses

Historically, many cultures have expected bystander males to protect females, but depending on the situation, these cultures have also ...

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