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The problem of bullying between children and adolescents was initially investigated in the 1970s by the Norwegian researcher Dan Olweus. Since then, bullying in schools has been identified as a pressing global and national problem. This entry describes the etiology of bullying behavior that occurs between adolescents, the victimization and perpetration rates, and outcomes based on gender, sexual orientation, and disability.

Defining Bullying

On Stopbullying.gov, a public information site, the U.S. Department of Education defines bullying as

unwanted, aggressive behavior among school aged children that involves a real or perceived power imbalance. The behavior is repeated, or has the potential to be repeated, over time. Bullying includes actions such as making threats, spreading rumors, attacking someone physically or verbally, and excluding someone from a group on purpose.

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