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Biological Sex Differences: Overview

Genetic, anatomical, hormonal, and neurochemical differences between cisgender males and females underlie some of the distinctive behaviors, conditions, and health outcomes seen in men and women. Of course, neither “nature” nor “nurture” entirely explains all the differences between the sexes; rather, these differences are caused by an interaction between biological factors and environmental influences. This entry includes information about some of the physiological differences between cisgender males and females, the psychological and behavioral differences between men and women, as well as the diverse factors that underlie these disparities.

Gender Versus Sex

Although the terms are sometimes used interchangeably, gender refers to the behaviors, roles, expectations, and activities of men and women in society, while sex describes the biological factors that make one male, female, or intersex, ...

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