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Sexual orientation change efforts (SOCE), also known as conversion or reparative therapy, are efforts, which include psychotherapy, medical practices, religious/spiritual approaches, and self-help groups, designed to change an individual’s sexual orientation from a sexual attraction toward a same-sex partner to an attraction toward a different-sex partner or colloquially change an individual from gay to straight. Conversion therapy derives from and reinforces heterosexism, sexism, and social stigma against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals. Many techniques used to try to change or to prevent same-sex sexual orientation aim to increase compliance with traditional gender roles by reducing gender nonconformity in adulthood and childhood. Scientific evaluations of conversion therapy have found evidence of potential harms and insufficient evidence of benefits. Although originally associated solely with ...

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