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Gender affects the course of presentation and treatment of mania. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), defines mania as a mental state of elevated, expansive, or irritable mood and persistently increased level of energy. Manic episodes may be specified as mild, medium, moderate to severe, or severe and are found in varying degrees in people with bipolar disorders and, parenthetically, in some instances, substance-related disorders that may or may not be comorbid. In bipolar I disorder, the manic episode is persistently elevated, expansive, and sufficiently severe so as to cause marked impairment in work or social activities. In bipolar II disorder, diagnosis occurs after at least one depressive episode and an episode of hypomania, which is defined as an abnormality ...

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