Machismo is a socially constructed term that encompasses a variety of stereotyped male roles typically associated with traditional, hyper- or hegemonic masculinity, whereby men occupy a socially dominant position and women a subordinate one. At an individual level, machismo’s stereotypical, exaggerated characteristics may include overreliance on the self, toughness, impulsivity, and recklessness. At an interpersonal level, machismo can include implicit and explicit dynamics that assert male superiority, dominance in the form of patriarchy, and further oppressive practices toward not only females but other males too. Machismo may be learned and reinforced in the interplay of social dynamics within families, educational institutions, organized sports, sex-segregated restrooms and locker rooms, communities, work environments, leisure and civic activities, and social structures.

While previously yet inaccurately associated only with Latino ...

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