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Psychological studies investigating the hormone testosterone and its associated social behaviors, cognitive effects, and personality traits commonly define testosterone levels in a relative sense. As such, low testosterone is defined here as low relative to other members of a given sample and excludes individuals with atypically low levels due to medical conditions. Generally, testosterone is associated with a variety of human social behaviors, including dominance, concern for status, and cooperation. Specifically, low testosterone is implicated in attenuated dominance, diminished proclivity to seek and maintain high status, and increased cooperative behavior.

Variability of Testosterone Levels

Baseline testosterone levels vary naturally between individuals but also within an individual, with testosterone rising at the onset of puberty and decreasing in old age—particularly among males. Testosterone levels can also vary ...

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