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Researchers often differentiate between three major types of sexism: (1) individual, (2) societal/cultural, and (3) institutional. Institutional sexism refers to gender discrimination reflected in the policies and practices of organizations such as governments, corporations (workplaces), public institutions (schools, health care), and financial institutions. These practices derive from systemic sexist beliefs that women are inferior to and therefore less capable than men. An example of institutional sexism is the differential pay rate between men and women, even when occupying the same role: National statistics show that in the United States, on average, women make $0.77 for every $1.00 men earn. Institutional sexism affects people’s self-concept and can shape their work identity and professional aspirations, making it extremely relevant to the topic of psychology and gender. ...

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