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Infertility is largely defined as the inability to achieve viable pregnancy after 12 months of regular, unprotected sexual intercourse. According to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, approximately 6.1 million (or 10% of) women in the United States are infertile, and 3.5 million (or 17% of) couples experience infertility complications. Infertility is identified as one of the biggest life stressors for both men and women, and it affects their physiological processing at the time of realization. This entry addresses the causes of infertility, the kinds of treatments available, and the relational and emotional stressors associated with infertility medical treatments.

Infertility occurs for various reasons. For men, infertility arises when the number of sperm or sperm quality produced is in question or when blockage prevents the sperm ...

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