A party list is one of the fundamental elements of an electoral system. Whenever elections take place in a multiseat district system (each electoral district elects more than one candidate), parties present a list of candidates for each district. Lists could be open or closed and this difference may crucially influence the outcome of the election. This entry offers a definition and a description of the working of different typologies of party lists and discusses some of their possible effects.

Open Versus Closed Party Lists, and Beyond

A party list can be open or closed. Closed lists are more easily defined. In each district, parties present a take-it-or-leave-it offer on ranked ballots. Voters have no possibility to influence the ranking of individual candidates, hence their choice ...

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