Lobbying is an effort made by individuals or groups to convey information to governmental, administrative, or regulatory officials, in an attempt to influence decision outcomes. This entry provides an overview of lobbying, describes the advocacy groups and officials involved and the incentives they face, discusses theoretical and empirical outcomes, and examines how lobbying and transparency vary across countries.


Lobbying occurs when a government or government-like body has the power to implement a law, policy, or procedure, and individuals, firms, or groups attempt to exert influence in the decision. John Figueiredo and Brian Richter suggest that lobbyists can convey information through a combination of statistics, facts, arguments, messages, forecasts, threats, commitments, and signals to politicians, staffs, and agencies. Lobbying activities are broad and varied, and include ...

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