Framing Effects

How do individuals form preferences? One essential factor is the manner in which their choices are framed. According to Robert M. Entman, “some aspects of a perceived reality” are made more salient and “a particular problem definition, causal interpretation, moral evaluation, and/or treatment recommendation” (1993, p. 390) is promoted. That is to say, frames increase the salience of a particular consideration.

Within the broad literature on framing in political science, scholars are continuing to define distinct types of frames. One important distinction is that between equivalency frames and issue frames. The former occurs when the same crucial information is presented in opposing ways to influence individuals’ preferences. For example, Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman famously found that when individuals are presented with scenarios about a rare ...

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