Cognitive dissonance can be defined as the inconsistency between pairs of related cognitions or between related cognitions and actions. In order to better understand this definition, it is essential to specify the meaning of the term cognition as well as the relationship that exists between pairs of cognitions, as well as cognitions and actions. Within the framework of cognitive dissonance theory, cognitions refer to the knowledge that an individual possesses about objects (e.g., I know that dollar bills are green), oneself (e.g., I know that I am a liberal), and the environment (e.g., I know that it is cold today). Furthermore, pairs of cognitions, as well as cognitions and actions, can be unrelated or related consistently or inconsistently with each other. In keeping with this ...

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