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Ethics of Performance-Enhancing Drugs in Sport

Performance enhancement, in the context of sport, is the use of external means to enhance an individual’s physical abilities to perform. Methods of enhancement range from skillful training, technological assistance, genetic enhancement, dietary modification, and pharmaceutical interventions. The social acceptance of particular forms of performance enhancements is influenced by a number of factors, including cultural values, legal discourse, consumption methods, and intended objectives. For example, an individual who purchases a muscle-building complex on the Internet may go unquestioned, whereas Olympic athletes who conceal their use of performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) from officials may be publicly scrutinized and reprimanded. Such distinctions between socially acceptable and unacceptable forms of performance enhancement continue to be blurred as expectations of professional athletes increase and new forms of PEDs become available.

Therapeutic ...
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