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With the need or desire to improve knowledge and learning, many people will use shortcuts to achieve this end. The popular approach is through pharmaceutical neuroenhancement, the use of a drug to improve normal cognitive, motivational, or emotional functioning in healthy human beings. Most attention focuses on drugs used as study aids by students, though recent media commentary has expanded this idea to people in any age group who wish to improve memory and learning.

Brain function depends on a number of different neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitters are chemicals in the brain that enable the movement of signals between nerve cells. These chemicals facilitate many cognitive activities, such as memory, motivation, attention, concentration, cognitive control, and strategic choice. For enhancing brain function to improve learning, dopamine and ...

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