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Induced erythrocythemia, popularly known as blood doping, can be defined as any method of increasing red blood cell count and enhancing oxygen transport capacity with the aim of improving endurance athletic performance by artificially strengthening the blood’s capacity to supply more oxygen to muscles. Blood plays crucial roles in the transport of oxygen and nutrients to all parts of the body to sustain and maintain healthy and optimal performance. The aggregate effect of blood doping is improved stamina and performance. In professional sports, many methods of blood doping have been prohibited by sports bodies such as the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), which is partially funded by the International Olympic Committee.

Athletes can use various blood products (e.g., darbepoetin alfa, erythropoietin [EPO], hypoxia-inducible factor stabilizers) to increase ...

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