The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic is one of the most concerning global health crises of our time. HIV is a virus that attacks the immune system, weakening the body’s ability to fight disease. Some people who are infected with HIV progress to AIDS, which is considered the final stage of HIV infection. People with AIDS have a severely damaged immune system and are at risk of a number of opportunistic infections. While a person can be diagnosed as HIV positive, meaning they are infected with the virus, by a blood test for antibodies to HIV, a diagnosis of AIDS requires a very low C4 cell count (below 200 cells/mm3 of blood), the presence of an AIDS-related cancer, or the presence ...

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