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Stimulants are psychoactive drugs that produce heightened arousal of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Typical effects from stimulant consumption include increased wakefulness, reduced fatigue, and increased motor functioning, heart rate, and blood pressure. Caffeine represents the most commonly consumed stimulant in the world and is frequently used to increase wakefulness and productivity. In sport, stimulants are used to enhance performance. Claims of performance-enhancing effects from stimulants include increased cardiorespiratory endurance, reduced fatigue during performance, and improved concentration and motor control. Caffeine is also commonly used in sports for these benefits, although excessive amounts of caffeine in the bloodstream prior to, or following, competition are prohibited in some sports and organizations. Stimulants have a longer history of use (and abuse) in sport than any ...

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